Postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of colorectal cancer: a review and meta-analysis

  • Francine Grodstein
    Requests for reprints should be addressed to Francine Grodstein, ScD, Channing Laboratory, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Channing Laboratory (FG, MJS), Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

    Department of Epidemiology (FG, MJS), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
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  • Polly A Newcomb
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (PAN), Cancer Prevention Research Program, Seattle, Washington, USA
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  • Meir J Stampfer
    Channing Laboratory (FG, MJS), Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

    Department of Nutrition (MJS), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

    Department of Epidemiology (FG, MJS), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
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      PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Accumulating evidence indicates that postmenopausal hormone therapy may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in women.
      METHODS: Through MEDLINE computer searches (January 1966 to September 1998) and a review of references, we identified English-language articles with quantitative data on the relation of postmenopausal hormone therapy to colorectal cancer. We reviewed the studies and made summary estimates of relative risks (RR) by weighting the results of each study in proportion to its precision, using a general variance-based, fixed-effects model.
      RESULTS: In our meta-analysis of 18 epidemiologic studies of postmenopausal hormone therapy and colorectal cancer, we found a 20% reduction [RR = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74 to 0.86] in risk of colon cancer and a 19% decrease (RR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.92) in the risk of rectal cancer for postmenopausal women who had ever taken hormone therapy compared with women who never used hormones. Much of the apparent reduction in colorectal cancer was limited to current hormone users (RR = 0.66, 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.74).
      CONCLUSION: Observational studies suggest a reduced risk of colorectal cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormones. There is biologic evidence to support this association.
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