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Cefmenoxime Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics in Critical Care Patients with Nosocomial Pneumonia

  • Author Footnotes
    b From the Department of Pharmaceutics, Division of Clinical Pharmacy Science, State University of New York, at Buffalo, and the Department of Medicine and the Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratory, Millard Fillmore Hospital, Buffalo, New York.
    Jerome J. Schentag
    Correspondence
    Requests for reprints should be addressed to Jerome J. Schentag, Pharm.D., Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratory, 3 Gates Circle, Buffalo, New York 14209.
    Footnotes
    b From the Department of Pharmaceutics, Division of Clinical Pharmacy Science, State University of New York, at Buffalo, and the Department of Medicine and the Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratory, Millard Fillmore Hospital, Buffalo, New York.
    Affiliations
    Buffalo, New York
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  • Author Footnotes
    b From the Department of Pharmaceutics, Division of Clinical Pharmacy Science, State University of New York, at Buffalo, and the Department of Medicine and the Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratory, Millard Fillmore Hospital, Buffalo, New York.
    Donald P. Reitberg
    Footnotes
    b From the Department of Pharmaceutics, Division of Clinical Pharmacy Science, State University of New York, at Buffalo, and the Department of Medicine and the Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratory, Millard Fillmore Hospital, Buffalo, New York.
    Affiliations
    Buffalo, New York
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  • Author Footnotes
    b From the Department of Pharmaceutics, Division of Clinical Pharmacy Science, State University of New York, at Buffalo, and the Department of Medicine and the Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratory, Millard Fillmore Hospital, Buffalo, New York.
    Thomas J. Cumbo
    Footnotes
    b From the Department of Pharmaceutics, Division of Clinical Pharmacy Science, State University of New York, at Buffalo, and the Department of Medicine and the Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratory, Millard Fillmore Hospital, Buffalo, New York.
    Affiliations
    Buffalo, New York
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    b From the Department of Pharmaceutics, Division of Clinical Pharmacy Science, State University of New York, at Buffalo, and the Department of Medicine and the Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratory, Millard Fillmore Hospital, Buffalo, New York.
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      Nephrotoxicity frequently complicates the use of aminoglycosides in severely compromised acute care patients. Therefore, an open clinical trial was initiated to determine if cefmenoxime alone is useful in serious nosocomial pneumonias. Thirty consecutive patients were entered in the trial, and 28 patients with an average age of 66 years were evaluable. Most were malnourished at entry, with serum albumin averaging 2.8 g/dl and prognostic nutritional index values over 70 percent (normal less than 40 percent). One-half the patients had severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 68 percent required ventilators. Fifty-seven percent had concomitant cardiac disease, and 79 percent had previously been treated with antibiotics. Pneumonia was proven to be present by new infiltrate on chest x-ray, new fever, elevated white blood cell count, and gram-negative rods on gram stain and in cultures of tracheal aspirates or sputum. Patients were given cefmenoxime 1 to 2 g every six hours an average of 12 days. Cefmenoxime peak (one hour) and trough concentrations were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography and averaged 58 and 7 µg ml, respectively. Pharmacokinetic data in 18 patients were determined from serum profiles. Gram-positive organisms, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, and Hemophilus influenzae were usually eradicated. Persistence was noted for some Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Serratia, and Acinetobacter. Persistence in patients with good clinical response was considered colonization rather than superinfection. Overall, a satisfactory clinical response rate was noted in 78.6 percent of evaluable patients, whereas four patients responded satisfactorily with recurrence and two treatments had an unsatisfactory response. No serious adverse effects were observed. Cefmenoxime is a promising agent in the treatment of susceptible pneumonias in critical care patients.
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