Renal denervation is not a cure for hypertension. Although more recent sham-controlled trials were positive, a significant minority of patients in each trial were unresponsive. The optimal patient or patients need to be defined. Combined systolic/diastolic hypertension appears more responsive than isolated systolic hypertension. It remains uncertain whether patients with comorbidities associated with higher adrenergic tone should be targeted, including obesity, diabetes, sleep apnea, and chronic kidney disease. No biomarker can adequately predict response. A key to a successful response is the adequacy of denervation, which currently cannot be assessed in real time. It is uncertain what is the optimal denervation methodology i.e., radiofrequency, ultrasound, or ethanol injection. Radiofrequency requires targeting the distal main renal artery plus major branches and accessory arteries. Although denervation appears to be safe, conclusive data on quality-of-life, improved target organ damage, and/or reduced cardiovascular events/mortality are required before denervation can be generally recommended.
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Accepted: May 3, 2023
Received: May 3, 2023
Publication stageIn Press Journal Pre-Proof
© 2023 Published by Elsevier Inc.