Clinical Research Study|Articles in Press

Gender equality in national cardiology societies: a cross-sectional study



      Higher productivity and team stability has been shown for gender diverse teams. However, there is a relevant and well-known gender gap in clinical and academic cardiovascular medicine. So far, no data concerning gender distribution in presidents and executive boards of national cardiology societies exist.


      In this cross-sectional analysis, gender equality in presidents and representatives of all national cardiology societies, which are members of or affiliated with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in 2022 was analyzed. In addition, representatives of the American Heart Association (AHA) were evaluated.


      A total of 106 national societies were screened of which 104 were included in the final analysis. Overall, in these 104 societies, 90 out of 106 (85%) presidents were men while 14 (13%) were women. In the analysis of board members and executives, a total of 1128 individuals were included. Overall, 809 (72%) board members were men, 258 (23%) women and 61 (5%) of unknown gender. Except for society presidents in Australia, women were relevantly outnumbered by men in all world regions.


      Women were globally underrepresented in leading positions of national cardiology societies in all world regions. As national societies are important regional stakeholders, improving gender equality in executive boards might create women role models, help foster careers and narrow the global cardiology gender gap.

      Key words


      ACC (American College of Cardiology), AHA (American Heart Association), ESC (European Society of Cardiology)
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