Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk for Noncardiac and Nonsurgical Activities

Published:December 21, 2022DOI:


      Cardiovascular risk stratification is a frequent evaluation performed by health professionals. Not uncommonly, requests for risk stratification involve activities or procedures that fall outside of the scope of current evidence-based guidelines. Estimating risk and providing guidance for these requests can be challenging due to limited available evidence. This review focuses on some of these unique requests, each of which are real examples encountered in our practice. We offer guidance by synthesizing the available medical literature and formulating recommendations on topics such as the initiation of testosterone and erectile dysfunction therapy, SCUBA and skydiving, polygraphy, and electroconvulsive therapy.

      MeSH Keywords

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