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Renin-Angiotensin System-Modifying Antihypertensive Drugs Can Reduce the Risk of Cardiovascular Complications in Lupus: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Published:December 07, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2022.11.016

      Abstract

      Background

      Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease than the general population. Antihypertensive drugs that modify the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are used to protect renal function in lupus nephritis and may also have extrarenal effects that lower cardiovascular disease risk due to their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we compared the effects of RAS vs non-RAS antihypertensive drugs on cardiovascular disease incidence in patients with lupus.

      Methods

      Using a medical insurance claims dataset, 220,168 patients with lupus were identified, of which 31,647 patients (4018 patients prescribed RAS drugs, 27,629 patients prescribed non-RAS drugs) were eligible for the study. Patients had a mean age of 46.1 years, were 93.0% female, and healthy (96.9% Charlson Comorbidity Index score 0-4). Patients in the 2 drug groups were propensity score matched using demographic data, risk factors, and comorbidities.

      Results

      Use of RAS vs non-RAS drugs lowered the relative risk (RR) of diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (RR 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.87), which was more pronounced after propensity score matching (RR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.57-0.68). The decreased risk in cardiovascular disease occurred regardless of lupus nephritis status (with lupus nephritis: RR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.39-0.65; without lupus nephritis: RR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.59-0.72). RAS-modifying therapies significantly increased cardiovascular disease-free survival probability over a 5-year period (86.0% vs 78.3% probability).

      Conclusions

      RAS-modifying drugs reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in this dataset. These findings have the potential to impact clinical decision-making with regards to hypertension management in patients with lupus.

      Keywords

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