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Effectiveness and safety of direct oral anticoagulants among octogenarians with venous thromboembolism: an international multi-database cohort study

  • Antonios Douros
    Affiliations
    Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada

    Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada

    Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada

    Institute of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
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  • Frederike Basedow
    Affiliations
    InGef - Institute for Applied Health Research, Berlin, Germany
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  • Ying Cui
    Affiliations
    Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada
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  • Jenny Dimakos
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
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  • Jochen Walker
    Affiliations
    InGef - Institute for Applied Health Research, Berlin, Germany
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  • Dirk Enders
    Affiliations
    InGef - Institute for Applied Health Research, Berlin, Germany
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  • Vicky Tagalakis
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Dr. Vicky Tagalakis, Division of General Internal Medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, and Centre for Clinical Epidemiology of the Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, McGill University, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Cote Ste Catherine, Rm B-304.18, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T-1E2
    Affiliations
    Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada

    Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada

    Division of General Internal Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
Published:September 20, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2022.08.033

      Highlights

      • In octogenarians with VTE, DOACs were associated with a similar risk of recurrent VTE compared to VKAs.
      • DOACs were also associated with similar risks of major bleeding and death compared to VKAs.
      • The results of our international cohort study support the use of DOACs in this high-risk group.

      ABSTRACT

      Background

      The effects of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) among octogenarian patients with venous thromboembolism remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, our study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of DOACs compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) among octogenarians with venous thromboembolism.

      Methods

      We conducted an international cohort study using administrative healthcare databases from Québec, Canada and Germany. We assembled two population-based cohorts of octogenarians with incident venous thromboembolism initiating treatment with DOACs or VKAs. The study period spanned from January 2012 to the most recent date of data availability (Québec: December 2016; Germany: December 2019). Using an as-treated exposure definition, we compared use of DOACs to use of VKAs applying inverse probability of treatment weighting based on high-dimensional propensity scores to balance exposure groups. Cox proportional hazards models estimated site-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of recurrent venous thromboembolism, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality. The results were meta-analyzed using random-effects models.

      Results

      Overall, our study included 6,737 octogenarians with venous thromboembolism (Québec: n=2,556; Germany: n=4,181) who initiated use of DOACs (n=3,778) or VKAs (n=2,959). When compared to VKAs, DOACs were associated with similar risks of recurrent venous thromboembolism (weighted HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.43-1.46; I2=0.00), major bleeding (weighted HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.57-1.63; I2=0.59), and all-cause mortality (weighted HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.81-1.34; I2=0.00).

      Conclusions

      Among octogenarians with venous thromboembolism, DOACs showed a comparable effectiveness and safety compared with VKAs. Our results support the use of DOACs in this high-risk group.

      Keywords

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