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Characteristics and Diagnostic Challenge of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody Positive Infective Endocarditis

  • Author Footnotes
    1 SanXi Ai and XinPei Liu contributed equally to this work.
    SanXi Ai
    Footnotes
    1 SanXi Ai and XinPei Liu contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Nephrology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 SanXi Ai and XinPei Liu contributed equally to this work.
    XinPei Liu
    Footnotes
    1 SanXi Ai and XinPei Liu contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
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  • Gang Chen
    Affiliations
    Department of Nephrology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
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  • YueLun Zhang
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Research, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
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  • Xue Bai
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Records, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
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  • Yan Qin
    Correspondence
    Requests for reprints should be addressed to Yan Qin, MD, Department of Nephrology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730, China.
    Affiliations
    Department of Nephrology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
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  • Qi Miao
    Affiliations
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
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  • XueMei Li
    Affiliations
    Department of Nephrology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 SanXi Ai and XinPei Liu contributed equally to this work.

      Abstract

      Objective

      Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) has been reported in patients with infective endocarditis. Whether ANCA is associated with certain characteristics of infective endocarditis is unclear. The principal aim of this study is to investigate the clinical implications of ANCA in infective endocarditis and highlight the diagnostic challenge in ANCA-positive patients with infective endocarditis.

      Methods

      A retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in China from August 2012 to December 2021. Patients with a diagnosis of infective endocarditis and available ANCA results were included in the study. The clinical and pathological characteristics were compared between ANCA-positive and ANCA-negative patients.

      Results

      A total of 237 patients were included. Forty three (18.1%) were ANCA-positive, predominantly c-ANCA/anti-PR3. Compared to ANCA-negative patients, ANCA-positive patients had longer disease duration (P = .004), more frequent purpura (P = .015), macrohematuria (P = .002), proteinuria (P = .043), acute kidney injury (P = .004), and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (P = .010). Histologic findings of 8 patients with infective endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis were reviewed. Two ANCA-positive patients with infective endocarditis presented with pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis. A total of 18.6% of ANCA-positive patients with infective endocarditis were misdiagnosed as ANCA-associated vasculitis.

      Conclusions

      ANCA is detected in a substantial proportion of patients with infective endocarditis. The presence of ANCA in infective endocarditis is associated with longer disease duration, more frequent purpura, and kidney involvement. ANCA-positive infective endocarditis may mimic ANCA-associated vasculitis, and the differential diagnosis is challenging. Whether ANCA is pathogenic in infective endocarditis-associated small vessel vasculitis requires further study.

      Keywords

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