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Outcomes and Resource Utilization in Patients Hospitalized with Gastrointestinal Bleeding Complicated by Types 1 and 2 Myocardial Infarction

      Abstract

      Background

      Types 1 and 2 myocardial infarction (MI) may occur in the setting of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). There is a paucity of data pertinent to the contemporary prevalence and impact of types 1 and 2 MI following GIB. We examined clinical profiles and the prognostic impact of both MI types on outcomes of patients hospitalized with GIB.

      Methods

      The 2018 Nationwide Readmission Database was queried for patients hospitalized for the primary diagnosis of GIB and had concomitant diagnoses of type 1 or type 2 MI. Baseline characteristics, in-hospital mortality, resource utilization, and 30-day all-cause readmissions were compared among groups.

      Results

      Of 381,867 primary GIB hospitalizations, 2902 (0.75%) had type 1 MI and 3963 (1.0%) had type 2 MI. GIB patients with type 1 and type 2 MI had significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared to their counterparts without MI (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]: 4.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.43-6.48; and aOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.48-3.16, respectively). Both types 1 and 2 MI were associated with higher rates of discharge to a nursing facility (aOR of type 1 vs. no MI: 1.65, 95% CI 1.45-1.89, and aOR of type 2 vs no MI: 1.37, 95% CI 1.22-1.54), longer length of stay, higher hospital costs, and more 30-day all-cause readmissions (aOR of type 1 vs no MI: 1.22, 95% CI 1.08-1.38; aOR of type 2 vs no MI: 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30).

      Conclusion

      Types 1 and 2 MI are associated with higher in-hospital mortality and resource utilization among patients hospitalized with GIB in the United States.

      Keywords

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