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Biologically Active Adrenomedullin (bio-ADM) is of Potential Value in Identifying Congestion and Selecting Patients for Neurohormonal Blockade in Acute Dyspnea

      Abstract

      Purpose

      This study was designed to evaluate the role of biologically active adrenomedullin (bio-ADM) in congestion assessment and risk stratification in acute dyspnea.

      Methods

      This is a sub-analysis of the Lithuanian Echocardiography Study of Dyspnea in Acute Settings. Congestion was assessed by means of clinical (peripheral edema, rales) and sonographic (estimated right atrial pressure) parameters. Ninety-day mortality was chosen for outcome analysis.

      Results

      There were 1188 patients included. Bio-ADM concentration was higher in patients with peripheral edema at admission (48.2 [28.2-92.6] vs 35.4 [20.9-59.2] ng/L, P < .001). There was a stepwise increase in bio-ADM concentration with increasing prevalence of rales: 29.8 [18.8-51.1], 38.5 [27.5-67.1], and 51.1 [33.1-103.2] ng/L in patients with no rales, rales covering less than one-half, and greater than or equal to one-half of the pulmonary area, respectively (P < 0.001). Bio-ADM concentration demonstrated gradual elevation in patients with normal, moderately, and severely increased estimated right atrial pressure: 25.1 [17.6-42.4] ng/L, 36.1 [23.1-50.2], and 47.1 [30.7-86.7] ng/L, respectively (P < .05). Patients with bio-ADM concentration >35.5 ng/L were at more than twofold increased risk of dying (P < .001). Survival in those with high bio-ADM was significantly modified by neurohormonal blockade at admission (P < .05), especially if NT-proBNP levels were lower than the median (P = .002 for interaction).

      Conclusion

      Bio-ADM reflects the presence and the degree of pulmonary, peripheral, and intravascular volume overload and is strongly related to 90-day mortality in acute dyspnea. Patients with high bio-ADM levels demonstrated survival benefit from neurohormonal blockade.

      Keywords

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