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Conflicts of Interest: MA receives royalties as an author and honoraria as a speaker.
ER has received grants for research through his institution and honoraria as a speaker from the California Walnut Commission and is a nonpaid member of its Scientific Advisory Committee.
NDB serves without financial compensation as president of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine and Barnard Medical Center, nonprofit organizations providing education, research, and medical care related to nutrition. He receives royalties as an author and honoraria as a speaker.
SD is the executive director of the educational nonprofit Gaples Institute that offers continuing medical education-approved nutrition courses for sale to health professionals. Courses are developed entirely through philanthropy to the Gaples Institute, a nonprofit that does not seek or receive corporate support. SD receives no royalties or personal consideration of any kind from the sale of these courses.
CB is President Inland Empire Chapter of the American Heart Association—no compensation; serves on The Plantrician Project Board of Advisors, Heart Health Nation Board of Directors, and Game Changers Foundation Board of Directors—no compensation.
JO has an ownership interest in CardioTabs.
DO consults with Sharecare and Beyond Meat and receives royalties as an author and honoraria as a speaker.
PK-E serves on the Seafood Nutrition Partnership Scientific and Nutrition Advisory Council, and has research funding from the Hass Avocado Board and the McCormick Science Institute.
RJO received research grants from the Purjes and Greenbaum Foundations and consulted for Better Therapeutics (2018). He is also a speaker for Main Street Vegan Academy and the International Plant-Based Nutrition Healthcare Conference. He is on the Board of Directors (uncompensated) for T. Colin Campbell Center for Nutrition Studies, sits on the Scientific Advisory Board (uncompensated) for Physician Committee for Responsible Medicine, and consulted for Brightplate.
AMF has done non-promotional speaking and consulting with Boehringer Ingelheim and Medtronic, and has served on advisory boards with Regeneron, The Medicines Company, and United Therapeutics.
All other authors have no conflicts of interest to report.
Authorship: All authors had access to the data and a role in writing the manuscript.