Beta-Blocker Use and Outcomes in Nursing Home Residents with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction

Published:November 29, 2021DOI:



      Beta-blockers improve clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Less is known about their role in older nursing home residents with HFrEF.


      From the combined OPTIMIZE-HF and Alabama Heart Failure Project data sets, we assembled a propensity score-matched balanced cohort of 6494 hospitalized patients ≥65 years with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤40%). In our primary approach, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s for outcomes associated with discharge prescriptions for beta- blockers were estimated, examining for heterogeneity by admission from nursing homes. In our sensitivity approach, we examined these associations in a separately assembled propensity score-matched cohort of 122 patients admitted from nursing homes.


      In the matched primary cohort of 6494 patients, HRs (95% CIs) for 12-month all-cause mortality and heart failure readmission were 0.80 (0.74-0.87) and 0.94 (0.86-1.02), respectively. Respective HRs (95% CIs) in the nursing home and non-nursing home subgroups were 0.77 (0.51-1.16) and 0.81 (0.74-0.87) for all-cause mortality (interaction P: 0.653) and 1.06 (0.53-2.12) and 0.89 (0.82-0.96) for heart failure readmission (interaction P: 0.753). In the matched sensitivity cohort of 122 patients admitted from nursing homes, HRs (95% CIs) for 12-month all-cause mortality and heart failure readmission were 0.86 (0.55-1.35) and 1.07 (0.52-2.22), respectively. Similar associations were observed for 30-day outcomes.


      Beta-blocker use was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality but not of heart failure readmission in older patients with HFrEF, which were similar for patients admitted and not admitted from nursing homes.


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