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First Trimester Anticoagulant Exposure and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Preconception Venous Thromboembolism: A Nationwide Cohort Study

Published:November 16, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2021.10.023

      Abstract

      Objective

      The purpose of this study was to investigate first trimester anticoagulant exposure and risks of adverse pregnancy-related and fetal outcomes.

      Methods

      Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified all pregnant women with preconception venous thromboembolism, 2000-2017, and linked data on exposure to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), vitamin K antagonist (VKA), or non-VKA oral anticoagulant (NOAC) during pregnancy. We assessed pregnancy-related and fetal outcomes associated with first trimester anticoagulant exposure.

      Results

      Among 4490 pregnancies in women with preconception venous thromboembolism (mean age 31 years, 40% nulliparous) during the first trimester, 63.1% were unexposed, 25.9% were exposed to LMWH, 10.4% VKA, and 0.6% NOAC. Adverse outcomes were lowest in unexposed and LMWH exposed. Compared with unexposed, VKA was associated with higher risks of preterm (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70-2.99) and very preterm birth (adjusted OR 3.78; 95% CI, 1.91-7.49), shorter mean gestational age was associated with VKA (−7.5 days; 95% CI, −9.1 to −5.9 days) or NOAC (−2.3 days; 95% CI, −8.4-3.8), and lower mean birthweight with VKA (−55 g; 95% CI, −103.1 to −8.5) or NOAC (−190 g; 95% CI, −364.1 to −16.4). Adjusted ORs for small-for-gestational-age infants were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.77-1.50) with VKA, and 3.29 (95% CI, 1.26-7.95) with NOAC. Mean 5-minute Apgar score (9.8) and congenital defect prevalence (8.4%-10%) varied little across exposure groups.

      Conclusions

      Fetal risk was lowest in unexposed and LMWH-exposed pregnancies, supporting the recommendation of LMWH during pregnancy. NOAC safety during pregnancy is unclear due to the rarity of NOAC exposure.

      Keywords

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