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Funding: The CARDIA Lung study is funded by NHLBI (R01 HL122477). The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA) is conducted and supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (HHSN268201800005I and HHSN268201800007I), Northwestern University (HHSN268201800003I), University of Minnesota (HHSN268201800006I), and Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (HHSN268201800004I). This manuscript has been reviewed by CARDIA for scientific content.
Conflicts of Interest: ST, KNK, LAC, PG-L, DRJ, DM, TMP, MRC report none. MTD reports grants from the American Lung Association, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Department of Defense and personal fees from AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, PulmonX, and Teva. SRR reports grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), American Lung Association, and AstraZeneca; personal fees from GlaxoSmithKline; and being a GSK Nucala speaker; AZ biologics in COPD study investigator, NICH PRECisE investigator, and an ACRC investigator. GRW reports grants from National Institutes of Health (NIH), Boehringer Ingelheim, BTG Interventional Medicine, and Janssen Pharmaceuticals; personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, PulmonX, Novartis, Philips, Vertex, and is a cofounder and equity share holder of Quantitative Imaging Solutions; his spouse is an employee of Biogen. RK reports grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and American Lung association, and personal fees from AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, and CVS Caremark.
Authorship: All authors had access to the data and a role in writing this manuscript.