Advertisement

Historical Milestones in the Management of Stable Coronary Artery Disease over the Last Half Century

      Abstract

      Coronary revascularization for coronary artery disease dates back to the introduction of coronary bypass by Favaloro in 1967 and coronary angioplasty by Gruentzig in 1977 (first published in 1968 and 1978, respectively). There have been many technical improvements over the ensuing 5 decades, studied in clinical trials. This article reviews the history of coronary revascularization (the development of optimal medical therapy) and points the way to the future of stable coronary artery disease management.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to The American Journal of Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Favaloro RG.
        Saphenous vein autograft replacement of severe segmental coronary artery occlusion: operative technique.
        Ann Thorac Surg. 1968; 5: 334-339
        • Gruentzig A
        Transluminal dilatation of coronary artery stenosis.
        Lancet. 1978; 1: 263
        • Boden WE
        • O'Rourke RA
        • Teo KK
        • et al.
        Optimal medical therapy with or without PCI for stable coronary disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 1503-1516
        • White PD
        Coronary Disease and Coronary Thrombosis, Atherosclerosis. Heart Disease.
        MacMillan, New York, NY1931: 410-425
        • Cobb LA
        • Thomas GI
        • Dillard DH
        • Merendino KA
        • Bruce RA
        An evaluation of internal-mammary-artery ligation by a double-blind technic.
        N Engl J Med. 1959; 260: 1115-1118
        • De Bakey ME
        • Henly WS
        Surgical treatment of angina pectoris.
        Circulation. 1961; 23: 111-120
        • Meyer JA.
        Werner Forssmann and catheterization of the heart.
        Ann Thorac Surg. 1990; 49 (1929.): 497-499
        • Sones FM,Jr
        • Shirey EK
        Cine coronary arteriography.
        Mod Concepts Cardiovasc Dis. 1962; 31: 735-738
        • Gibbon JH
        Artificial maintenance of the circulation during experimental occlusion of the pulmonary artery.
        Arch Surg. 1937; 34: 1105-1131
        • Stoney WS
        Evolution of cardiopulmonary bypass.
        Circulation. 2009; 119: 2844-2853
        • Vineberg AM
        Development of an anastomosis between the coronary vessels and a transplanted internal mammary artery.
        Can Med Assoc J. 1946; 55: 117-119
        • Westaby S
        Landmarks in Cardiac Surgery.
        Isis Medical Media, Oxford, UK1997
        • Goetz RH
        • Rohman M
        • Haller JD
        • Dee R
        • Rosenak SS
        Internal mammary-coronary artery anastomosis. A nonsuture method employing tantalum rings.
        J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1961; 41: 378-386
        • Braunwald E
        Coronary-artery surgery at the crossroads.
        N Engl J Med. 1977; 297: 661-663
        • Murphy ML
        • Hultgren HN
        • Detre K
        • Thomsen J
        • Takaro T
        Treatment of chronic stable angina. A preliminary report of survival data of the randomized Veterans Administration cooperative study.
        N Engl J Med. 1977; 297: 621-627
        • Takaro T
        • Hultgren HN
        • Detre KM
        • Peduzzi P
        The Veterans Administration Cooperative Study of Stable Angina: current status.
        Circulation. 1982; 65: 60-67
      1. Coronary artery surgery study (CASS): a randomized trial of coronary artery bypass surgery. Survival data.
        Circulation. 1983; 68: 939-950
      2. Long-term results of prospective randomised study of coronary artery bypass surgery in stable angina pectoris. European Coronary Surgery Study Group.
        Lancet. 1982; 2: 1173-1180
        • Passamani E
        • Davis KB
        • Gillespie MJ
        • Killip T
        A randomized trial of coronary artery bypass surgery. Survival of patients with a low ejection fraction.
        N Engl J Med. 1985; 312: 1665-1671
        • Takaro T
        • Peduzzi P
        • Detre KM
        • et al.
        Survival in subgroups of patients with left main coronary artery disease. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study of Surgery for Coronary Arterial Occlusive Disease.
        Circulation. 1982; 66: 14-22
        • Yusuf S
        • Zucker D
        • Peduzzi P
        • et al.
        Effect of coronary artery bypass graft surgery on survival: overview of 10-year results from randomised trials by the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Trialists Collaboration.
        Lancet. 1994; 344: 563-570
        • Rogers WJ
        • Coggin CJ
        • Gersh BJ
        • et al.
        Ten-year follow-up of quality of life in patients randomized to receive medical therapy or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The Coronary Artery Surgery Study (CASS).
        Circulation. 1990; 82: 1647-1658
        • Velazquez EJ
        • Lee KL
        • Deja MA
        • et al.
        Coronary-artery bypass surgery in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.
        N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 1607-1616
        • Velazquez EJ
        • Lee KL
        • Jones RH
        • et al.
        Coronary-artery bypass surgery in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 2016; 374: 1511-1550
        • King 3rd, SB
        • Lembo NJ
        • Weintraub WS
        • et al.
        A randomized trial comparing coronary angioplasty with coronary bypass surgery. Emory Angioplasty versus Surgery Trial (EAST).
        N Engl J Med. 1994; 331: 1044-1050
        • Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI) Investigators
        Comparison of coronary bypass surgery with angioplasty in patients with multivessel disease.
        N Engl J Med. 1996; 335: 217-225
        • Hamm CW
        • Reimers J
        • Ischinger T
        • Rupprecht HJ
        • Berger J
        • Bleifeld W
        A randomized study of coronary angioplasty compared with bypass surgery in patients with symptomatic multivessel coronary disease. German Angioplasty Bypass Surgery Investigation (GABI).
        N Engl J Med. 1994; 331: 1037-1043
      3. Coronary angioplasty versus coronary artery bypass surgery: the Randomized Intervention Treatment of Angina (RITA) trial.
        Lancet. 1993; 341: 573-580
      4. First-year results of CABRI (Coronary Angioplasty versus Bypass Revascularisation Investigation). CABRI Trial Participants.
        Lancet. 1995; 346: 1179-1184
        • Rodriguez A
        • Mele E
        • Peyregne E
        • et al.
        Three-year follow-up of the Argentine Randomized Trial of Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Multivessel Disease (ERACI).
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996; 27: 1178-1184
        • Hlatky MA
        • Boothroyd DB
        • Bravata DM
        • et al.
        Coronary artery bypass surgery compared with percutaneous coronary interventions for multivessel disease: a collaborative analysis of individual patient data from ten randomised trials.
        Lancet. 2009; 373: 1190-1197
      5. Influence of diabetes on 5-year mortality and morbidity in a randomized trial comparing CABG and PTCA in patients with multivessel disease: the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI).
        Circulation. 1997; 96: 1761-1769
        • Parisi AF
        • Folland ED
        • Hartigan P
        A comparison of angioplasty with medical therapy in the treatment of single-vessel coronary artery disease. Veterans Affairs ACME Investigators.
        N Engl J Med. 1992; 326: 10-16
      6. Coronary angioplasty versus medical therapy for angina: the second Randomised Intervention Treatment of Angina (RITA-2) trial. RITA-2 trial participants.
        Lancet. 1997; 350: 461-468
        • Katritsis DG
        • Ioannidis JP
        Percutaneous coronary intervention versus conservative therapy in nonacute coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.
        Circulation. 2005; 111: 2906-2912
        • Serruys PW
        • Unger F
        • Sousa JE
        • et al.
        Arterial Revascularization Therapies Study Group. Comparison of coronary-artery bypass surgery and stenting for the treatment of multivessel disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 1117-1124
      7. Coronary artery bypass surgery versus percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (the Stent or Surgery trial): a randomised controlled trial.
        Lancet. 2002; 360: 965-970
        • Sedlis SP
        • Hartigan PM
        • Teo KK
        • et al.
        Effect of PCI on long-term survival in patients with stable ischemic heart disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2015; 373: 1937-1946
        • Weintraub WS
        • Spertus JA
        • Kolm P
        • et al.
        Effect of PCI on quality of life in patients with stable coronary disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 677-687
        • Frye RL
        • August P
        • Brooks MM
        • et al.
        A randomized trial of therapies for type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 2503-2515
        • Dagenais GR
        • Lu J
        • Faxon DP
        • et al.
        Effects of optimal medical treatment with or without coronary revascularization on angina and subsequent revascularizations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and stable ischemic heart disease.
        Circulation. 2011; 123: 1492-1500
        • De Bruyne B PijlsNH
        • Kalesan B
        • et al.
        Fractional flow reserve-guided PCI versus medical therapy in stable coronary disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2012; 367: 991-1001
        • De Bruyne B
        • Fearon WF
        • Pijls NH
        • et al.
        Fractional flow reserve-guided PCI for stable coronary artery disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2014; 371: 1208-1217
        • Boden WE.
        Which is more enduring—FAME or COURAGE.
        N Engl J Med. 2012; 367: 1059-1061
        • Al-Lamee R
        • Thompson D
        • Dehbi HM
        • et al.
        Percutaneous coronary intervention in stable angina (ORBITA): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.
        Lancet. 2018; 391: 31-40
        • Stergiopoulos K
        • Brown DL
        Initial coronary stent implantation with medical therapy vs. medical therapy alone for stable coronary artery disease: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
        Arch Intern Med. 2012; 172: 312-319
        • Stergiopoulos K
        • Boden WE
        • Hartigan P
        • et al.
        Percutaneous coronary intervention outcomes in patients with stable obstructive coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia: a collaborative meta-analysis of contemporary randomized clinical trials.
        JAMA Intern Med. 2014; 174: 232-240
        • Serruys PW
        • Morice MC
        • Kappetein AP
        • et al.
        Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary-artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 961-972
      8. Kappetein AP, Feldman TE, Mack MJ, et al. Comparison of coronary bypass surgery with drug-eluting stenting for the treatment of left main and/or three-vessel disease: 3-year follow-up of the SYNTAX trial. Eur Heart J. 32:2125-2134.

        • Mohr FW
        • Morice MC
        • Kappetein AP
        • et al.
        Coronary artery bypass graft surgery versus percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with three-vessel disease and left main coronary disease: 5-year follow-up of the randomised, clinical SYNTAX trial.
        Lancet. 2013; 381: 629-638
      9. Farkouh ME, Domanski M, Sleeper LA, et al. Strategies for multivessel revascularization in patients with diabetes. N Engl J Med. 367:2375-2384.

        • Stone GW
        • Sabik JF
        • Serruys PW
        • et al.
        Everolimus-eluting stents or bypass surgery for left main coronary artery disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2016; 375: 2223-2235
        • Makikallio T
        • Holm NR
        • Lindsay M
        • et al.
        Percutaneous coronary angioplasty versus coronary artery bypass grafting in treatment of unprotected left main stenosis (NOBLE): a prospective, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial.
        Lancet. 2016; 388: 2743-2752
        • Head SJ
        • Milojevic M
        • Daemen J
        • et al.
        Mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting for coronary artery disease: a pooled analysis of individual patient data.
        Lancet. 2018; 391: 939-948
      10. International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) Trial: Rationale and design.
        Am Heart J. 2018; 201: 124-135
        • Taggart DP
        • D'Amico R
        • Altman DG
        Effect of arterial revascularisation on survival: a systematic review of studies comparing bilateral and single internal mammary arteries.
        Lancet. 2001; 358: 870-875
        • Yi G
        • Shine B
        • Rehman SM
        • Altman DG
        • Taggart DP
        Effect of bilateral internal mammary artery grafts on long-term survival: a meta-analysis approach.
        Circulation. 2014; 130: 539-545
        • Taggart DP
        • Altman DG
        • Gray AM
        • et al.
        Randomized trial of bilateral versus single internal-thoracic-artery grafts.
        N Engl J Med. 2016; 375: 2540-2549
        • Taggart DP
        • Altman DG
        • Flather M
        • et al.
        Associations between adding a radial artery graft to single and bilateral internal thoracic artery grafts and outcomes: insights from the Arterial Revascularization Trial.
        Circulation. 2017; 136: 454-463
        • Gaudino M
        • Benedetto U
        • Fremes S
        • et al.
        Radial-artery or saphenous-vein grafts in coronary-artery bypass surgery.
        N Eng J Med. 2018; 378: 2069-2077
        • Tajti P
        • Brilakis ES
        Chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention: evidence and controversies.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2018; 7e006732https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.006732
        • Giambruno V
        • Jones P
        • Khaliel F
        • et al.
        Hybrid coronary revascularization versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.
        Ann Thorac Surg. 2018; 105: 1330-1335
        • Tajstra M
        • Hrapkowicz T
        • Hawranek M
        • et al.
        Hybrid coronary revascularization in selected patients with multivessel disease: 5-year clinical outcomes of the prospective randomized pilot study.
        JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2018; 11: 847-852
        • Valgimigli M
        • Bueno H
        • Byrne RA
        • et al.
        ESC focused update on dual antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease developed in collaboration with EACTS: the Task Force for dual antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS).
        Eur Heart J. 2018; 39: 213-260
        • Jacobs JP
        • Shahian DM
        • Prager RL
        • et al.
        Introduction to the STS National Database Series: Outcomes analysis, quality improvement, and patient safety.
        Ann Thorac Surg. 2015; 100: 1992-2000
        • Messenger JC
        • Ho KK
        • Young CH
        • et al.
        The National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) Data Quality Brief: the NCDR Data Quality Program in 2012.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012; 60: 1484-1488
        • Brindis RG
        • Fitzgerald S
        • Anderson HV
        • Shaw RE
        • Weintraub WS
        • Williams JF
        The American College of Cardiology-National Cardiovascular Data Registry (ACC-NCDR): building a national clinical data repository.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001; 37: 2240-2245
        • Zinman B
        • Wanner C
        • Lachin JM
        • et al.
        Empagliflozin, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality in type 2 diabetes.
        N Engl J Med. 2015; 373: 2117-2128
        • Neal B
        • Perkovic V
        • Mahaffey KW
        • et al.
        Canagliflozin and cardiovascular and renal events in type 2 diabetes.
        N Engl J Med. 2017; 377: 644-657
        • Nabel EG
        • Braunwald E
        A tale of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 2012; 366: 54-63
        • Ford ES
        • Ajani UA
        • Croft JB
        • et al.
        Explaining the decrease in U.S. deaths from coronary disease, 1980–2000.
        N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 2388-2396
        • Benjamin EJ
        • Virani SS
        • Callaway CW
        • et al.
        Heart disease and stroke statistics—2018 update: a report from the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2018; 137: e67-e492
        • Bucholz EM
        • Rodday AM
        • Kolor K
        • Khoury MJ
        • de Ferranti SD
        Prevalence and predictors of cholesterol screening, awareness, and statin treatment among US Adults with familial hypercholesterolemia or other forms of severe dyslipidemia (1999-2014).
        Circulation. 2018; 137: 2218-2230
        • Pinho-Gomes AC
        • Azevedo L
        • Ahn JM
        • et al.
        Compliance with guideline-directed medical therapy in contemporary coronary revascularization trials.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018; 71: 591-602