Advertisement

Prevalence of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Patients with Myocardial Infarction with Non-Obstructive Coronary Arteries

      Abstract

      Background

      Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries is a working diagnosis for several heart disorders. Previous studies on anxiety and depression in patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries.

      Methods

      We included 99 patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries together with age- and sex-matched control groups who completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) 3 months after the acute event.

      Results

      Using the Beck Depression Inventory, we found that the prevalence of depression in patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (35%) was higher than in healthy controls (9%; P = .006) and similar to that of patients with coronary heart disease (30%; P = .954). Using the HADS anxiety subscale, we found that the prevalence of anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (27%) was higher than in healthy controls (9%; P = .002) and similar to that of patients with coronary heart disease (21%; P = .409). Using the HADS depression subscale, we found that the prevalence of depression in patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (17%) was higher than in healthy controls (4%; P = .003) and similar to that of patients with coronary heart disease (13%; P = .466). Patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries and takotsubo syndrome scored higher on the HADS anxiety subscale than those without (P = .028).

      Conclusions

      This is the first study on the mental health of patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries to show that prevalence rates of anxiety and depression are similar to those in patients with coronary heart disease.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to The American Journal of Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Musselman DL
        • Evans DL
        • Nemeroff CB
        The relationship of depression to cardiovascular disease.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998; 55: 580-592
        • Thombs BD
        • Bass EB
        • Ford DE
        • et al.
        Prevalence of depression in survivors of acute myocardial infarction.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2006; 21: 30-38
        • Lane D
        • Carroll D
        • Ring C
        • Beevers DG
        • Lip GY
        The prevalence and persistence of depression and anxiety following myocardial infarction.
        Br J Health Psychol. 2002; 7: 11-21
        • Lichtman JH
        • Froelicher ES
        • Blumenthal JA
        • et al.
        Depression as a risk factor for poor prognosis among patients with acute coronary syndrome: systematic review and recommendations: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2014; 129: 1350-1369
        • Roest AM
        • Martens EJ
        • de Jonge P
        • Denollet J
        Anxiety and risk of incident coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 56: 38-46
        • Huffman JC
        • Celano CM
        • Januzzi JL
        The relationship between depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
        Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2010; 6: 123-136
        • Pasupathy S
        • Air T
        • Dreyer RP
        • Tavella R
        • Beltrame JF
        Systematic review of patients presenting with suspected myocardial infarction and nonobstructive coronary arteries.
        Circulation. 2015; 131: 861-870
        • Daniel M
        • Ekenback C
        • Agewall S
        • et al.
        Risk factors and markers for acute myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries.
        Am J Cardiol. 2015; 116: 838-844
        • Kenkre TS
        • Malhotra P
        • Johnson BD
        • et al.
        Ten-year mortality in the WISE study (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation).
        Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2017; 10
        • Agewall S
        • Beltrame JF
        • Reynolds HR
        • et al.
        ESC working group position paper on myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries.
        Eur Heart J. 2017; 38: 143-153
        • Templin C
        • Ghadri JR
        • Diekmann J
        • et al.
        Clinical features and outcomes of takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy.
        N Engl J Med. 2015; 373: 929-938
        • Tornvall P
        • Collste O
        • Ehrenborg E
        • Jarnbert-Petterson H
        A case-control study of risk markers and mortality in takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016; 67: 1931-1936
        • Daniel M
        • Agewall S
        • Caidahl K
        • et al.
        Effect of myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries on physical capacity and quality-of-life.
        Am J Cardiol. 2017; 120: 341-346
        • Collste O
        • Sorensson P
        • Frick M
        • et al.
        Myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries is common and associated with normal findings on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: results from the Stockholm Myocardial Infarction with Normal Coronaries study.
        J Intern Med. 2013; 273: 189-196
        • Beck AT
        • Ward CH
        • Mendelson M
        • Mock J
        • Erbaugh J
        An inventory for measuring depression.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961; 4: 561-571
        • Lisspers J
        • Nygren A
        • Soderman E
        Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD): some psychometric data for a Swedish sample.
        Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1997; 96: 281-286
        • Zigmond AS
        • Snaith RP
        The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
        Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1983; 67: 361-370
        • de Jonge P
        • Spijkerman TA
        • van den Brink RH
        • Ormel J
        Depression after myocardial infarction is a risk factor for declining health related quality of life and increased disability and cardiac complaints at 12 months.
        Heart. 2006; 92: 32-39
        • Ulvik B
        • Bjelland I
        • Hanestad BR
        • Omenaas E
        • Wentzel-Larsen T
        • Nygard O
        Comparison of the Short Form 36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale measuring emotional distress in patients admitted for elective coronary angiography.
        Heart Lung. 2008; 37: 286-295
        • Watkins LL
        • Koch GG
        • Sherwood A
        • et al.
        Association of anxiety and depression with all-cause mortality in individuals with coronary heart disease.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2013; 2e000068
        • Cay EL
        • Vetter N
        • Philip AE
        • Dugard P
        Psychological status during recovery from an acute heart attack.
        J Psychosom Res. 1972; 16: 425-435
        • Mayou RA
        • Gill D
        • Thompson DR
        • et al.
        Depression and anxiety as predictors of outcome after myocardial infarction.
        Psychosom Med. 2000; 62: 212-219
        • Martin CR
        • Lewin RJ
        • Thompson DR
        A confirmatory factor analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in coronary care patients following acute myocardial infarction.
        Psychiatry Res. 2003; 120: 85-94
        • Roest AM
        • Martens EJ
        • Denollet J
        • de Jonge P
        Prognostic association of anxiety post myocardial infarction with mortality and new cardiac events: a meta-analysis.
        Psychosom Med. 2010; 72: 563-569
        • Rugulies R
        Depression as a predictor for coronary heart disease: a review and meta-analysis.
        Am J Prev Med. 2002; 23: 51-61
        • Celano CM
        • Mastromauro CA
        • Lenihan EC
        • Januzzi JL
        • Rollman BL
        • Huffman JC
        Association of baseline anxiety with depression persistence at 6 months in patients with acute cardiac illness.
        Psychosom Med. 2012; 74: 93-99
        • Nemeroff CB
        • Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ
        Heartache and heartbreak: the link between depression and cardiovascular disease.
        Nat Rev Cardiol. 2012; 9: 526-539
        • Kronish IM
        • Rieckmann N
        • Halm EA
        • et al.
        Persistent depression affects adherence to secondary prevention behaviors after acute coronary syndromes.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2006; 21: 1178-1183
        • Goh AC
        • Wong S
        • Zaroff JG
        • Shafaee N
        • Lundstrom RJ
        Comparing anxiety and depression in patients with takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy to those with acute coronary syndrome.
        J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2016; 36: 106-111
        • Pelliccia F
        • Kaski JC
        • Crea F
        • Camici PG
        Pathophysiology of takotsubo syndrome.
        Circulation. 2017; 135: 2426-2441
        • Steel Z
        • Marnane C
        • Iranpour C
        • et al.
        The global prevalence of common mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis 1980-2013.
        Int J Epidemiol. 2014; 43: 476-493