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Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01468701.
Funding: This work was supported by Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH.
Conflict of Interest: MM declares no conflict of interest. MVH has received honoraria for presentations and research grants from Boehringer Ingelheim, Bayer HealthCare, Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), and Actelion Pharmaceuticals. KJR is an employee of RTI Health Solutions, an independent nonprofit research organization that does work for government agencies and pharmaceutical companies. HCD has received honoraria for participation in clinical trials and contributes to advisory boards or oral presentations from Abbott, Allergan, AstraZeneca, Bayer Vital, BMS, Boehringer Ingelheim, CoAxia, Corimmun, Covidien, Daiichi-Sankyo, D-Pharm, Fresenius, GSK, Janssen-Cilag, Johnson & Johnson, Knoll, Lilly, MSD, Medtronic, MindFrame, Neurobiological Technologies, Novartis, Novo-Nordisk, Paion, Parke-Davis, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, Schering-Plough, Servier, Solvay, St Jude, Syngis, Talecris, Thrombogenics, WebMD Global, Wyeth, and Yamanouchi. Financial support for research projects was provided by AstraZeneca, GSK, Boehringer Ingelheim, Lundbeck, Novartis, Janssen-Cilag, Sanofi-Aventis, Syngis, and Talecris. The Department of Neurology at the University Duisburg-Essen received research grants from the German Research Council (DFG), the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the European Union, the National Institutes of Health, the Bertelsmann Foundation, and the Heinz-Nixdorf Foundation. HCD has no ownership interest and does not own stocks of any pharmaceutical company; within the past year, HCD served as the editor of Aktuelle Neurologie, Arzneimitteltherapie, Kopfschmerznews, and Stroke News, as the co-editor of Cephalalgia, and was on the editorial board of Lancet Neurology, Stroke, European Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders; HCD chairs the Treatment Guidelines Committee of the German Society of Neurology and has contributed to the European Heart Rhythm Association and the European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. SJD has received consultancy fees for serving as a steering committee member for Boehringer Ingelheim and holds research grants from St Jude Medical. JLH is currently conducting research sponsored by Boehringer Ingelheim as a member of the Executive Steering Committee for the GLORIA-AF Registry and has received consulting fees from Bayer HealthCare, Janssen-Ortho-McNeil, and Pfizer for advisory activities involving the development of anticoagulant drugs. MP, CT, KZ, LRF, and SL are employees of Boehringer Ingelheim. GYHL has been a consultant for Bayer/Janssen, Astellas, Merck, Sanofi, Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS)/Pfizer, Biotronik, Medtronic, Portola, Boehringer Ingelheim, Microlife, and Daiichi-Sankyo; and has been a speaker for Bayer, BMS/Pfizer, Medtronic, Boehringer Ingelheim, Microlife, Roche, and Daiichi-Sankyo.
Authorship: All authors had access to the data and played a role in writing this manuscript.