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Distal Esophageal Spasm: A Review

      Abstract

      Distal esophageal spasm is a rare motility disorder presenting principally with nonobstructive dysphagia and noncardiac chest pain. In symptomatic patients, the manometric diagnosis is made when >10% of the wet swallows have simultaneous and/or premature contractions intermixed with normal peristalsis. We characterize manometry and barium as complementary diagnostic approaches, and given the intermittent nature of the disorder, one should be always aware that it is almost impossible to rule out spasm. Treatment is difficult; we propose an approach beginning with the least invasive intervention.

      Keywords

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