Lung cancer is a major public health problem in the United States. It is one of the most common malignancies, with an annual incidence of more than 228,000, and the leading cause of death from cancer, responsible for more than 159,000 deaths in 2013.
1Targeted screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) of high-risk individuals, defined as those who are aged 55 to 74 years, who have a history of ≥30 pack-years of cigarette smoking, who are current smokers, or who quit smoking within the past 15 years, has been shown to decrease lung cancer mortality by 20% and all-cause mortality by approximately 7% when compared with chest radiography as part of the National Lung Screening Trial.
- Siegel R.
- Naishadham D.
- Jemal A.
Cancer statistics, 2013.
CA Cancer J Clin. 2013; 63: 11-30
2Partly on the basis of these findings, the US Preventive Services Task Force recently issued a Grade B recommendation for annual low-dose CT for individuals between the ages of 55 and 80 years who are at high risk for lung cancer.
- The National Lung Screening Trial Team
Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening.
N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 395-409
3Furthermore, a recent systematic review concluded that there is “strong evidence” to demonstrate that low-dose CT screening can reduce both lung cancer–specific and all-cause mortality.
- Moyer V.A.
Screening for lung cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.
Ann Intern Med. 2014; 160: 330-338
- Humphrey L.L.
- Deffebach M.
- Pappas M.
- et al.
Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography: a systematic review to update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation.
Ann Intern Med. 2013; 159: 411-420
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- Cancer statistics, 2013.CA Cancer J Clin. 2013; 63: 11-30
- Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening.N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 395-409
- Screening for lung cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.Ann Intern Med. 2014; 160: 330-338
- Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography: a systematic review to update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation.Ann Intern Med. 2013; 159: 411-420
- Improving abdominal aortic aneurysm screening with an electronic clinical reminder.Am J Med. 2010; 123: 899-901
- Improving HIV testing rates with an electronic clinical reminder.Am J Med. 2012; 125: 240-242
- Results of initial low-dose computed tomographic screening for lung cancer.N Engl J Med. 2013; 368: 1980-1991
Published online: April 23, 2014Kim A. Eagle, MD, and Elizabeth A. Jackson, MD, MPH, Section Editors
Funding: The research was supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, grant (V1CDA2012-20) VISN 1 Career Development Award to KMA.
Conflict of Interest: None.
Authorship: All authors had access to the data and played a role in writing this manuscript.
Published by Elsevier Inc.