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Evidence-based Use of Statins for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

      Abstract

      Three-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly known as statins, are widely available, inexpensive, and represent a potent therapy for treating elevated cholesterol. Current national guidelines put forth by the Adult Treatment Panel III recommend statins as part of a comprehensive primary prevention strategy for patients with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at increased risk for developing coronary heart disease within 10 years. Lack of a clear-cut mortality benefit in primary prevention has caused some to question the use of statins for patients without known coronary heart disease. On review of the literature, we conclude that current data support only a modest mortality benefit for statin primary prevention when assessed in the short term (<5 years). Of note, statin primary prevention results in a significant decrease in cardiovascular morbidity over the short and long term and a trend toward increased reduction in mortality over the long term. When appraised together, these data provide compelling evidence to support the use of statins for primary prevention in patients with risk factors for developing coronary heart disease over the next 10 years.

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