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Rheumatologic manifestations of diabetes mellitus

  • José C Crispin
    Affiliations
    Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico
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  • Jorge Alcocer-Varela
    Correspondence
    Requests for reprints should be addressed to Jorge Alcocer-Varela, MD, Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico 14000, Tlalpan D.F. Mexico City, Mexico
    Affiliations
    Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Diabetes mellitus has been linked to disorders of bones and joints, including neuroarthropathy, limited joint mobility, and hyperostosis. Some of the relations have known pathogenic mechanisms, but most are based on epidemiologic findings. This article reviews the associations between diabetes mellitus and its putative rheumatologic manifestations, and proposes a classification composed of four categories: consequences of diabetic complications, consequences of metabolic derangements inherent to diabetes, syndromes that may share etiologic mechanisms with microvascular disease, and probable associations. This approach may facilitate a clearer understanding of the musculoskeletal conditions that are prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus.
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