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Treatment of lupus psychosis with oral cyclophosphamide followed by azathioprine maintenance: an open-label study

      Neuropsychiatric disease in systemic lupus erythematosus can have diverse manifestations, ranging from subtle cognitive dysfunction to overt life-threatening diseases such as stroke and status epilepticus (
      • West S.G.
      Lupus and the central nervous system.
      ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric manifestations varies widely, from 9% to 80% in various series, depending on the definition, method of ascertainment, pattern of referral, and patient ethnicity (
      • West S.G.
      Lupus and the central nervous system.
      ,
      • Baca V.
      • Lavalle C.
      • Garcia R.
      • et al.
      Favorable response to intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide in children with severe neuropsychiatric lupus.
      ,
      • Brey R.L.
      • Holliday S.L.
      • Saklad A.R.
      • et al.
      Neuropsychiatric syndromes in lupus: prevalence using standardized definitions.
      ,
      • Mok C.C.
      • Lau C.S.
      • Wong R.W.S.
      Neuropsychiatric manifestations and their clinical associations in southern Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
      ).
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