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Sex-related differences in the use and adverse effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure: the study of patients intolerant of converting enzyme inhibitors registry

      An important step in understanding whether heart failure affects men and women differently is to define the clinical characteristics and patterns of treatment in women with this disease (
      • Rich M.W.
      Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology of congestive heart failure in older adults.
      ,
      • Lindenfeld J.
      • Krause-Steinrauf H.
      • Salerno J.
      Where are all the women with heart failure?.
      ). We reviewed the Study of Patients Intolerant of Converting Enzyme inhibitors (SPICE) registry, a large registry of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, to describe the clinical features and trends in medication use in women. We also sought to identify any differences between the sexes in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, diuretics, and other heart-failure medications.
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