Treatment of antibiotic-associated Clostridium difficile colitis with oral vancomycin: Comparison of two dosage regimens

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      purpose: High-dose (500 mg orally four times daily) vancomycin is considered by many investigators to be the most effective treatment for antibiotic-associated Clostridium difficile colitis. However, a lower dosage of 125 or 150 mg given three of four times a day has become popular, has been shown to be effective, and is less expensive than the high-dose regimen. We therefore decided to compare two vancomycin dosage regimens in a randomized trial.
      patients and methods: The study involved 46 hospitalized patients with serious underlying diseases complicated by C. difficile diarrhea or colitis. Patients were assgined (according to a table of random numbers) to treatment with either 125 or 500 mg of vancomysin orally four times daily for an average of 10 days.
      results: No significant differences in measurable responses to the two regimens wre noted. There were no treatment failures. The mean duration of diarrhea after initiation of therapy was about four days, and almost all patients had no diarrhea after one week. The organism continued to be demonstrated in the stools of about 50 percent of patients for the first few weeks after completion of therapy, and nine (20 percent) patients developed a recurrence of their diarrheal illness. Vancomycin was well tolerated by all patients.
      conclusion: Since the dose of 125 mg appeared to be as effective as the 500-mg dose, which is more expensive, the 125-mg dose is preferred when vancomycin is used in treatment of this disease, unless the patient is critically ill.
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