Efficacy of captopril in hypertensive diabetic patients

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      Twenty hypertensive diabetic patients (10 with type I and 10 with type II) were treated with captopril, 50 mg twice a day, for three months. The drug was effective as monotherapy in 16 patients. An additional nine months of follow-up was obtained in 12 of these patients (four with type I and eight with type II) who did not need the addition of diuretics to achieve normal blood pressure. For these patients with long-term treatment, since there was no substantial difference between those with type I and those with type II, the data were pooled. Mean arterial pressure significantly decreased shortly after treatment was begun and the reduction was maintained. No significant change was induced by captopril in urine volume, osmolar clearance, and serum and urinary values of sodium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium, whereas significant reduction was found in fractional excretion of potassium and phosphate. The baseline levels of proteinuria were only slightly elevated, yet they fell in all patients during treatment. All patients maintained satisfactory control of carbohydrate metabolism, and none of them required substantial changes in hypoglycemic treatment. The administration of captopril as monotherapy appears to be an effective and safe way of lowering blood pressure in diabetic hypertensive patients, even in the long term, without effects on renal function and in carbohydrate metabolism.
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