Single kidney function: Effect of acute protein and water loading on microalbuminuria

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      The hyperfiltration induced by an acute response to an oral protein and water load was investigated to ascertain whether it can modify the urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in the microalbuminuric range by further increasing the glomerular filter permeability. To this end, six patients with a single kidney selected as having microalbuminuria on a regular diet without the clinical or laboratory data of overt renal disease and eight healthy subjects received a short-term protein and water load (150 g of meat-derived protein and 1 liter of water). In patients with one kidney, mean basal UAE values were significantly higher than in control subjects (p <0.006), whereas endogenous creatinine clearance values were only slightly lower (p >0.05). One hour after the protein and water load, an abrupt increase in microalbuminuria levels was found in patients with one kidney and mean UAE values were significantly higher than in control subjects (p <0.002), whereas mean creatinine clearance values were significantly lower in patients than in control subjects (p <0.01). High UAE (p <0.002) and low creatinine clearance (p <0.002) values were maintained over the following four hours in patients with one kidney. These data suggest that in the single kidney with reduced renal functional reserve, an oral protein and water load magnifies the pre-existing loss of glomerular permselective properties due to chronic hyperfiltration as manifested by a further increase in microalbuminuria.
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