Advertisement

Clinical applications of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      Although only recently introduced, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical disorders. Their uses to date, approved by the Food and Drug Administration, have been in the treatment of refractory hypertension and congestive heart failure. However, they have been evaluated with mixed results in numerous other conditions in which the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may play a role. Their current status in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and these other conditions is reviewed.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to The American Journal of Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ondetti M.A.
        • Rubin B
        • Cushman D.W.
        Design of specific inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme: a new class of orally active antihypertensive agents.
        Science. 1977; 196: 441-443
        • Ferguson R.K.
        • Brunner H.R.
        • Turini G.A.
        • Gavras H
        • McKinstry D.N.
        A specific orally active inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme in man.
        Lancet. 1977; I: 775-779
        • Patchett A.A.
        • Harris E
        • Tristram E.W.
        • et al.
        A new class of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.
        Nature. 1980; 288: 280-283
        • Ondetti M.A.
        • Williams N.J.
        • Sabo E.F.
        • Pluscec J.
        • Weaver E.R.
        • Kocy O
        Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the venom of Bothrops jararaca. Isolation, elucidation of structure and synthesis.
        Biochemistry. 1971; 10: 4033-4039
        • Collier J.G.
        • Robinson B.F.
        • Vane J.R.
        Reduction of pressor effects of angiotensin I in man by synthetic nonapeptide (B.P.P.90 or SQ 20881) which inhibits converting enzyme.
        Lancet. 1973; I: 72-74
        • Biollaz J
        • Burneri M
        • Turini G.A.
        • et al.
        Three new long acting converting-enzyme inhibitors: relationship between plasma converting enzyme activity and response to angiotensin I.
        Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981; 29: 665-670
        • Kaplan H.R.
        • Cohen DEM
        • Essenburg A
        • Major T
        • Mertz T
        • Ryan M
        CI-906 and CI-907: new orally active nonsulfhydryl angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.
        in: 2nd ed. Fed Proc. 43. 1984: 1326-1329
        • DesCombes B.J.
        • Turini G.A.
        • Brunner H.R.
        • Porchet M
        • Chen D.S.
        • Sen S.B.
        CGS 13945: a new orally active angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in normal volunteers.
        J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1983; 5: 511-516
        • Gavras H
        • Brunner H.R.
        • Laragh J.H.
        • Sealey J.E.
        • Gavras I
        • Vukovich R.A.
        An angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor to identify and treat vasoconstrictor and volume factors in hypertensive patients.
        N Engl J Med. 1974; 291: 814-821
        • Gavras H
        • Brunner H.R.
        • Turini G.A.
        • et al.
        Antihypertensive effect of the oral converting-enzyme inhibitor SQ 14225 in man.
        N Engl J Med. 1978; 298: 991-995
        • Gavras H
        • Biollaz J
        • Waeber B
        • Brunner H.R.
        • Gavras I
        • Davies R.O.
        Antihypertensive effect of the new oral angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor “MK-421.”.
        Lancet. 1981; II: 542-547
        • Rotmensch H.H.
        • Vincent M
        • Vlasses P.H.
        • et al.
        Initial evaluation of the non-sulfhydryl-containing converting enzyme inhibitor, MK-521 in hypertensive man.
        in: 2nd ed. Fed Proc. 42. 1983: 3338-3341
        • Case D.B.
        • Atlas S.A.
        • Laragh J.H.
        • Sealey J.E.
        • Sullivan P.A.
        • McKinstry D.N.
        Clinical experience with blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by an oral converting enzyme inhibitor (SQ 14,225, captopril) in hypertensive patients.
        Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1978; 21: 195-206
        • Johnston C.I.
        • McGrath B.P.
        • Millar J.A.
        • Matthews P.G.
        Long-term effects of captopril (SQ 14225) on blood pressure and hormone levels in essential hypertension.
        Lancet. 1979; II: 493-495
        • Ferguson R.K.
        • Vlasses P.H.
        • Swanson B.N.
        • et al.
        Effects of enalapril, a new converting enzyme inhibitor, in hypertension.
        Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982; 32: 48-53
        • Rotmensch H.H.
        • Vlasses P.H.
        • Swanson B.N.
        • et al.
        Antihypertension efficacy of once-daily MK-521, a new non-sulfhydryl angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor.
        Am J Cardiol. 1984; 53: 123-128
        • Vlasses P.H.
        • Rotmensch H.H.
        • Swanson B.N.
        • Mojaverian P
        • Ferguson R.K.
        Low-dose captopril: its use in mild to moderate hypertension unresponsive to diuretic treatment.
        Arch Intern Med. 1982; 142: 1098-1101
        • Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Anti-hypertensive Agents
        Racial differences in response to low-dose captopril are abolished by the addition of hydrochlorothiazide.
        Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 14: 975-1015
        • Ferguson R.K.
        • Vlasses P.H.
        • Koplin J.R.
        • Shirinian A
        • Burke Jr, J.F.
        • Alexander J.C.
        Captopril in severe treatment-resistant hypertension.
        Am Heart J. 1980; 99: 579-583
        • Atkinson A.B.
        • Brown J.J.
        • Lever A.F.
        • Robertson JIS
        Combined treatment of severe intractable hypertension with captopril and diuretic.
        Lancet. 1980; II: 105-109
        • Friedman A
        • Chesney R
        • Bull D
        • Gottfried T
        Effective use of captopril (angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor) in severe childhood hypertension.
        J Pediatr. 1980; 97: 664-667
        • Bifano E
        • Post E.M.
        • Springer J
        • Williams M.L.
        • Streeten DHP
        Treatment of neonatal hypertension with captopril.
        J Pediatr. 1982; 100: 143-146
        • Hymes L.C.
        • Warshaw B.L.
        Captopril: long-term treatment of hypertension in a preterm infant and in older children.
        Am J Dis Child. 1983; 137: 263-266
        • Rotmensch H.H.
        • Vlasses P.H.
        • Ferguson R.K.
        Resolution of captopril-induced rash after substitution of enalapril.
        Pharmacotherapy. 1983; 3: 131-133
        • Abrams W.A.
        • Davies R.O.
        • Ferguson R.K.
        Overview: the role of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in cardiovascular therapy.
        in: 2nd ed. Fed Proc. 43. 1984: 1314-1321
        • Witzgall H.
        • Hirsch F
        • Scherer B
        • Weber P.C.
        Acute haemodynamic and hormonal effects of captopril are diminished by indomethacin.
        Clin Sci. 1982; 62: 611-615
        • Tifft C.P.
        • Gavras H
        • Kershaw G.R.
        • et al.
        Converting enzyme inhibitor in hypertensive emergencies.
        Ann Intern Med. 1979; 90: 43-48
        • Case D.B.
        • Atlas S.A.
        • Sullivan P.A.
        • Laragh J.H.
        Acute and chronic treatment of severe and malignant hypertension with the oral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril.
        Circulation. 1981; 64: 765-771
        • Saragoca M.A.
        • Homsi E
        • Riberiro A.B.
        • Ferreira Filho S.R.
        • Ramos O.L.
        Hemodynamic mechanism of blood pressure response to captopril in human malignant hypertension.
        Hypertension. 1983; 5 (part II): I-53-I-58
        • Lopez-Ovejero J.A.
        • Saal S.D.
        • D'Angelo W.A.
        • Cheigh J.S.
        • Stenzel K.H.
        • Laragh J.H.
        Reversal of malignant hypertension and scleroderma renal vascular crisis by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril.
        N Engl J Med. 1979; 300: 1417-1419
        • Zawada Jr, E.T.
        • Clements P.J.
        • Furst D.A.
        • Bloomer A
        • Paulus H.E.
        • Maxwell M.A.
        Clinical course of patients with scleroderma renal crisis treated with captopril.
        Nephron. 1981; 27: 74-78
        • Whitman III, H.H.
        • Case D.B.
        • Laragh J.H.
        • et al.
        Variable response to oral angiotensin-converting enzyme blockade in hypertensive scleroderma patients.
        Arthritis Rheum. 1982; 25: 241-284
        • Sorenson L.B.
        • Paunicka K
        • Harris M
        Reversal of scleroderma renal crisis for more than 2 years in a patient treated with captopril.
        Arthritis Rheum. 1983; 26: 797-800
        • Atkinson A.B.
        • Brown J.J.
        • Fraser R
        • et al.
        Captopril in hypertension with renal artery stenosis and in intractable hypertension; acute and chronic changes in circulating concentrations of renin, angiotensin I and II and aldosterone and in body composition.
        Clin Sci. 1979; 57: 1395-1435
        • Hodsman G.P.
        • Brown J.J.
        • Davies D.L.
        • et al.
        Converting-enzyme inhibitor enalapril (MK-421) In treatment of hypertension with renal artery stenosis.
        Br Med J. 1982; 285: 1697-1699
        • Hollenberg N.K.
        Medical therapy of renovascular hypertension: efficacy and safety of captopril in 269 patients.
        Cardiovasc Rev Rep. 1983; 4: 852-878
        • Atkinson A.B.
        • Brown J.J.
        • Cummings AMM
        • et al.
        Captopril in renovascular hypertension: long-term use in predicting surgical outcome.
        Br Med J. 1982; 285: 689-693
        • Staessen J
        • Bulpitt C
        • Fagard R
        • Lijnen P
        • Amery A
        Long-term converting enzyme inhibition as a guide to surgical curability of hypertension associated with renovascular disease.
        Am J Cardiol. 1983; 51: 1317-1322
        • Re R
        • Novelline R
        • Escourron M.T.
        • Athanasoulis C
        • Burton J
        • Haber E
        Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme for diagnosis of renal-artery stenosis.
        N Engl J Med. 1978; 298: 582-587
        • Lyons D.F.
        • Streck W.F.
        • Kem D.C.
        • et al.
        Captopril stimulation of differential renins in renovascular hypertension.
        Hypertension. 1983; 5: 615-622
        • Hricik D.E.
        • Browning P.J.
        • Kopelman R.
        • Goorno W.E.
        • Madias N.E.
        • Dzau V.J.
        Captopril-induced functional renal insufficiency in patients with bilateral renal-artery stenosis or renal-artery stenosis in a solitary kidney.
        N Engl J Med. 1983; 308: 373-376
        • Chrysant S.G.
        • Dunn M
        • Marples D
        • DeMasters K
        Severe reversible azotemia from captopril therapy.
        Arch Intern Med. 1983; 143: 437-441
        • Blythe W.B.
        Captopril and renal autoregulation (editorial).
        N Engl J Med. 1983; 308: 390-391
        • Ribeiro A.B.
        • Krakoff L.R.
        Angiotensin blockade in coarctation of the aorta.
        N Engl J Med. 1976; 295: 148-150
        • Grossman E
        • Morag B
        • Nussinovitch N
        • Boichis C.H.
        • Knecht A
        • Rosenthal T
        Clinical use of captopril in Takayasu's disease.
        Arch Intern Med. 1984; 144: 95-96
        • Casta A
        • Conti V.R.
        • Talabi A
        • Brouhard B.H.
        Effective use of captopril in postoperative paradoxical hypertension of coarctation of the aorta.
        Clin Cardiol. 1982; 5: 551-553
        • Brunner H.R.
        • Wauters J.P.
        • McKinstry D.N.
        • Waeber B
        • Turini G.A.
        • Gavras H
        Inappropriate renin secretion unmasked by captopril (SQ 14225) in hypertension of chronic renal failure.
        Lancet. 1978; II: 704-707
        • Hamilton D.V.
        • Evans D.B.
        • Maidment G.
        • Pryor J.S.
        Captopril for refractory hypertension in patients with chronic renal failure and renal transplantation.
        J R Soc Med. 1981; 74: 357-362
        • Textor S.C.
        • Bravo E.L.
        • Fouad F.M.
        • Tarazi R.C.
        Hyperkalemia in azotemic patients during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and aldosterone reduction with captopril.
        Am J Med. 1982; 73: 719-725
        • Campbell B.C.
        • Shepherd A.N.
        • Elliott H.L.
        • McLean K.
        • Reid J.L.
        Prolonged converting enzyme inhibition following captopril in patients with renal insufficiency.
        Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 13: 755-757
        • Ferguson R.K.
        • Vlasses P.H.
        Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic applications of the new oral angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril.
        Am Heart J. 1981; 101: 650-656
        • Mimran A
        • Brunner H.R.
        • Turini G.A.
        • Waeber B
        • Brunner D
        Effect of captopril on renal vascular tone in patients with essential hypertension.
        Clin Sci. 1979; 57: 421s-423s
        • Bauer JH
        • Jones L.B.
        Long-term enalapril/hydrochlorothiazide improves renal function in patients with essential hypertension (abstr).
        Clin Res. 1983; 31: 760A
        • Vaughan Jr, E.D.
        • Carey R.M.
        • Ayers C.R.
        • Peach M.J.
        Hemodialysis-resistant hypertension: control with an orally active inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1979; 48: 869-871
        • Hirakata H.
        • Iseki K
        • Onoyama K
        • Kumagai H
        • Fujimi S
        • Omae T
        Long-term hemodynamic response to SQ 14,225 (captopril) in hypertensive hemodialysis patients.
        Clin Nephrol. 1983; 19: 87-91
        • Wauters J-P
        • Waeber B
        • Brunner H.R.
        • Guignard J-P
        • Turini G.A.
        • Gavras H
        Uncontrollable hypertension in patients on hemodialysis: long-term treatment with captopril and salt subtraction.
        Clin Nephrol. 1981; 16: 86-92
        • Man in't Veld A.J.
        • Schicht I.M.
        • Derkx FHM
        • DeBruyn JHB
        • Schalekamp MADH
        Effects of an angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor (captopril) on blood pressure in anephric subjects.
        Br Med J. 1980; 280: 288-290
        • Leslie B.R.
        • Case D.B.
        • Sullivan J.F.
        • Vaughen Jr, E.D.
        Absence of blood pressure lowering effect of captopril in anephric patients.
        Br Med J. 1980; 280: 1067-1068
        • Curtis J.J.
        • Luke R.G.
        • Whelchel J.D.
        • Diethelm A.G.
        • Jones P.
        • Dustan H.P.
        Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme in renal transplant recipients with hypertension.
        N Engl J Med. 1983; 308: 377-381
        • Rasmussen S
        • Brahm M
        • Damkjaer Neilsen M
        • Giese J
        • Larsen S
        • Brun C
        Post-partum renal failure and malignant hypertension treated with captopril.
        Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1983; 17: 209-212
        • Brown E.A.
        • Markaku D.N.
        • Sagnella G.A.
        • Squires M
        • Jones B.E.
        • MacGregor G.A.
        Evidence that some other mechanism than the renin system causes sodium retention in nephrotic syndrome.
        Lancet. 1982; II: 1237-1240
        • Duminy P.C.
        • Burger P du T
        Fetal abnormality associated with the use of captopril during pregnancy.
        S Afr Med J. 1981; 60: 805
        • Aurell M
        • Rudin A
        • Tisell L.E.
        • Kindblam L.G.
        • Sandberg G
        Captopril effect on hypertension in patient with renin-producing tumor.
        Lancet. 1979; II: 149-150
        • Mantero F
        • Fallo F
        • Opocher G
        • Armanini D
        • Boscaro M
        • Scaroni C
        Effect of angiotensin II and converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril) on blood pressure, plasma renin activity and aldosterone in primary aldosteronism.
        Clin Sci. 1981; 61: 289s-293s
        • Griffing G.T.
        • Sindler B.H.
        • Aurecchia S.A.
        • Melby J.C.
        The therapeutic effect of a new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril maleate, in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (abstr).
        Clin Res. 1982; 30: 692A
        • Luderer J.R.
        • Demers L.M.
        • Harrison T.S.
        • Hayes Jr, A.H.
        Converting enzyme inhibition with captopril in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism.
        Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982; 31: 305-311
        • Thibonnier M
        • Sassano P
        • Joseph A
        • Plorrin P.F.
        • Corvol P
        • Menard J
        Diagnostic value of a single dose of captopril in renin- and aldosterone-dependent, surgically curable hypertension.
        Cardiovasc Rev Rep. 1982; 3: 1659-1667
        • Lyons DF
        • Kenn D.C.
        • Brown R.D.
        • Hanson C.S.
        • Carollo M.L.
        Single dose captopril as a diagnostic test for primary aldosteronism.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983; 57: 892-896
        • Zawada Jr, E.T.
        • Brickman A.S.
        • Maxwell M.H.
        • Tuck M.
        Hypertension associated with hyperparathyroidism is not responsive to angiotensin blockade.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1980; 50: 912-915
        • Waeber B
        • Brunner H.R.
        • Burckhardt P
        • Gavras H
        Hypertension in a patient with hypercalcemia. Captopril and verapamil.
        Arch Intern Med. 1982; 142: 143-145
        • Gavras H
        • Faxon D.P.
        • Berkoben J
        • Brunner H.R.
        • Ryan T.J.
        Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in patients with congestive heart failure.
        Circulation. 1978; 58: 770-776
        • Turini G.A.
        • Brunner H.R.
        • Gribic M.
        • Waeber B
        • Gavras H
        Improvement of chronic congestive heart failure by oral captopril.
        Lancet. 1979; I: 1213-1215
        • Dzau V.J.
        • Colucci W.S.
        • Williams G.H.
        • Curfman G
        • Meggs L
        • Hollenberg NK
        Sustained effectiveness of converting enzyme inhibition in patients with severe congestive heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 1980; 302: 1373-1376
        • Ader R
        • Chatterjee K
        • Ports T
        • Brundage B
        • Hiramatsu B
        • Parmley W
        Immediate and sustained hemodynamic and clinical improvement in chronic heart failure by an oral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.
        Circulation. 1980; 61: 931-937
        • Captopril Multicenter Research Group
        A placebo-controlled trial of captopril in refractory chronic congestive heart failure.
        JACC. 1983; 2: 755-763
        • Cody R.J.
        • Covit A.B.
        • Shaer G.L.
        • Laragh J.L.
        Evaluation of a long-acting converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) for the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure.
        JACC. 1983; 1: 1154-1159
        • DiCarlo L
        • Chatterjee K
        • Parmley W.W.
        • et al.
        Enalapril: a new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in chronic heart failure: acute and chronic hemodynamic evlauations.
        JACC. 1983; 2: 865-871
        • Rouleau J.L.
        • Chatterjee M.B.
        • Benge W
        • Parmley W
        • Hiramatsu B
        Alterations of left ventricular function and coronary hemodynamics in chronic ischemic heart failure: a comparative study.
        Circulation. 1982; 65: 671-678
        • Packer M
        • Medina N
        • Yashak M
        Contrasting hemodynamic responses in severe heart failure: comparison of captopril and other vasodilator drugs.
        Am Heart J. 1982; 104: 1215-1223
        • Halperin J.L.
        • Faxon D.P.
        • Creager M.A.
        • et al.
        Coronary hemodynamic effects of angiotensin inhibition by captopril and teprotide in patients with congestive heart failure.
        Am J Cardiol. 1982; 50: 967-972
        • Awan N.A.
        • Amsterdam E.A.
        • Hermanovich J.
        • Bommer W.J.
        • Needham K.E.
        • Mason D.T.
        Long-term hemodynamic and clinical efficacy of captopril therapy in ambulatory management of severe chronic congestive heart failure.
        Am Heart J. 1982; 103: 474-479
        • Kramer B.L.
        • Massie B.M.
        • Topic N
        Controlled trial of captopril in chronic heart failure: a rest and exercise hemodynamic study.
        Circulation. 1983; 67: 807-816
        • Levine T.B.
        • Cohn J.N.
        Determinants of acute and long-term response to converting enzyme inhibitors in congestive heart failure.
        Am Heart J. 1982; 104: 1159-1164
        • Creager M.A.
        • Faxon D.P.
        • Halperin J.L.
        • et al.
        Determinants of clinical response and survival in patients with congestive heart failure treated with captopril.
        Am Heart J. 1982; 104: 1147-1154
        • Pierpont G.L.
        • Francis G.S.
        • Cohn J.N.
        Effect of captopril on renal function in patients with congestive heart failure.
        Br Heart J. 1981; 46: 522-527
        • Massie B.M.
        • Packer M.
        • Hanlon J.T.
        • Combs T
        Hemodynamic responses to combined therapy with captopril and hydralazine in patients with severe heart failure.
        JACC. 1983; 2: 338-344
        • Brivet F
        • DelFrassy J-F
        • Guidicelli J-F
        • Richer C
        • Legrand A
        • Dormont J
        Immediate effects of captopril in acute left ventricular failure secondary to myocardial infarction.
        Eur J Clin Invest. 1981; 11: 369-373
        • Bounhoure J.P.
        • Kayanakis J.G.
        • Fauvel J.M.
        • Puel J
        Beneficial effects of captopril in left ventricular failure in patients with myocardial infarction.
        Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 14: 1875-1915
        • Niarchos A.P.
        • Roberts A.J.
        • Laragh J.H.
        Effects of the converting enzyme inhibitor (SQ 20881) on the pulmonary circulation in man.
        Am J Med. 1979; 67: 785-791
        • Rich S
        • Martinez J
        • Lam W
        • Rosen K.R.
        Captopril as treatment for patients with pulmonary hypertension. Problem of variability in assessing chronic drug treatment.
        Br Heart J. 1982; 48: 272-277
        • Ikram H
        • Maslowski AH
        • Nicholls M.G.
        • Espiner E.A.
        • Hull FTL
        Haemodynamic and hormonal effects of captopril in primary pulmonary hypertension.
        Br Heart J. 1982; 48: 541-545
        • Leier C.V.
        • Bambach D
        • Nelson S
        • et al.
        Captopril in primary pulmonary hypertension.
        Circulation. 1983; 67: 155-161
      1. Ibrahim MM, Mokhtar MS. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension with captopril. Acute and long-term hemodynamic effects. Br Heart J (in press).

        • Hene R.J.
        • Koomans H.A.
        • Boer P.
        • Mees EJD
        Long-term treatment of Bartter's syndrome with captopril.
        Br Med J. 1982; 285: 695
        • Aurell M
        • Rudin A
        Effect of captopril on blood pressure, renal function, the electrolyte balance and the renin-angiotensin system in Bartter's syndrome.
        Nephron. 1983; 33: 274-278
        • Sasaki H
        • Kawasaki T
        • Fujisawa M
        • Motooka Y
        • Asano T
        • Okamura M
        Hypertensive response to angiotensin II analogue and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor in pseudo-Bartter's syndrome.
        Jpn Heart J. 1981; 22: 689-693
        • Arroyo V
        • Bosch J
        • Mauri M
        • Ribera F
        • Navarro-Lopez F
        • Rodes J
        Effect of angiotensin II blockade on systemic and hepatic haemodynamics and on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cirrhosis with ascites.
        J Clin Invest. 1981; 11: 221-228
        • Espiner EA
        • Nichols M.G.
        Hormones and fluid retention in cirrhosis.
        Lancet. 1982; II: 501-502
        • Shepherd A.N.
        • Neligan P
        • Hayes P.C.
        Captopril and resistant ascites.
        Lancet. 1983; I: 1391-1392
        • Mimran A
        • Targhetta R
        Captopril treatment of idiopathic edema.
        N Engl J Med. 1979; 301: 1289
        • Docci D
        • Turci F
        • Salvi G
        Therapeutic response of idiopathic edema to captopril.
        Nephron. 1983; 34: 198-200
        • Miyazaki S
        • Miura K
        • Kasai Y
        • Abe K
        • Yashinaga K
        Relief from digital vasospasm by treatment with captopril and its complete inhibition by serine proteinase inhibitors in Raynaud's phenomenon.
        Br Med J. 1982; 284: 310-311
        • Sicuteri F
        Inhibition of peptidase degrading endogenous opioids: a new trend in the management of migraine and correlated “pain diseases.”.
        Adv Exp Med Biol. 1983; 156B: 1141-1151
        • Martin MFR
        • Surrall KE
        • McKenna F
        • Dixon JS
        • Bird HA
        • Wright V
        Captopril: a new treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.
        Lancet. 1984; I: 1325-1328