Oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in attempt to prevent infection after induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia

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      The efficacy of orally administered trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for infection prevention following induction chemotherapy was evaluated in 43 patients with acute leukemia. Twenty patients were randomly assigned to treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole during 20 episodes of profound granulocytopenia; 23 patients in the control group were followed through 25 granulocytopenic episodes. The incidences of superficial skin and overall infections were significantly tower in those patients with multiple relapses who received trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p = 0.008); however, there was no difference between the groups in regard to days of fever, days of antibiotic administration, days of hospitalization, or gram-negative rod bacteremia. As a result of this study, this regimen cannot be unequivocally recommended for infection prevention in neutropenic patients with acute leukemia undergoing induction or reinduction chemotherapy.
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