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The hemodynamic role of the atria with and without mitral stenosis

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      Abstract

      Simultaneous and sequential pacing of the atria and ventricles was performed to permit hemodynamic comparisons between ineffective and optimally effective atrial systole. In patients without valvular disease atrial systole augmented each measure of cardiac performance by approximately 20 per cent. Atrial systole made no significant hemodynamic contribution in the presence of mitral stenosis.
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