The hemodynamic role of the atria with and without mitral stenosis

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Simultaneous and sequential pacing of the atria and ventricles was performed to permit hemodynamic comparisons between ineffective and optimally effective atrial systole. In patients without valvular disease atrial systole augmented each measure of cardiac performance by approximately 20 per cent. Atrial systole made no significant hemodynamic contribution in the presence of mitral stenosis.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to The American Journal of Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Graettinger J.S.
        • Carleton R.A.
        • Muenster J.J.
        Circulatory consequences of changes in cardiac rhythm produced in patients by transthoracic direct-current shock.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1964; 43: 2290
        • Carleton R.A.
        • Passovoy M.
        • Graettinger J.S.
        The importance of the contribution and timing of left atrial systole.
        Clin. Sc. 1966; 30: 151
        • Skinner N.S.
        • Mitchell J.H.
        • Wallace A.G.
        • Sarnoff S.J.
        Hemodynamic consequences of atrial fibrillation at constant ventricular rates.
        Am. J. Med. 1964; 36: 342
        • Graettinger J.S.
        • Muenster J.J.
        • Checchia C.S.
        • Grissom R.L.
        • Campbell J.A.
        A correlation of clinical and hemodynamic studies in patients with hypothyroidism.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1958; 37: 502
        • McNeeley W.F.
        • Gravellese M.A.
        Measurement of cardiac output by dye dilution technic. Use of an “integrated” sample collection in calibration of the photometric instrument.
        J. Appl. Physiol. 1954; 7: 55
        • Samet P.
        • Bernstein W.
        • Levine S.
        Significance of the atrial contribution to ventricular filling.
        Am. J. Cardiol. 1965; 15: 195
        • Benchimol A.
        • Duenas A.
        • Liggett M.S.
        • Dimond E.G.
        Contribution of atrial systole to the cardiac function at a fixed and at a variable ventricular rate.
        Am. J. Cardiol. 1965; 16: 11
        • Laver M.B.
        • Turndorf H.
        Atrial activity and systemic blood pressure during anesthesia in man.
        Circulation. 1963; 28: 63
        • Gesell R.A.
        Auricular systole and its relation to ventricular output.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1911; 29: 32
        • Jochim K.
        The contribution of the auricles to ventricular filling in complete heart block.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1938; 122: 639
        • Brockman S.K.
        Dynamic function of atrial contraction in regulation of cardiac performance.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1963; 204: 597
        • Snyder J.
        • Wood E.H.
        Effect of heart rate on atrial contribution to cardiac performance in dogs with complete heart block.
        in: 11th ed. Fed. Proc.21. 1962: 137
        • Corliss R.J.
        • Rowe G.G.
        • McKenna D.H.
        • Sialer S.
        • Crumpton C.W.
        Hemodynamics of cardioversion.
        J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 1965; 66: 864
        • Logan W.F.W.E.
        • Rowlands D.J.
        • Howitt G.
        • Holmes A.M.
        Left atrial activity following cardioversion.
        Lancet. 1965; 2: 471
        • Braunwald E.
        • Rockoff S.D.
        • Oldham H.N.
        • Ross J.
        Effective closure of the mitral valve without atrial systole.
        Circulation. 1966; 33: 404
        • Vandenburg R.A.
        • Sturm R.E.
        • Wood E.H.
        Efficiency of closure of the mitral valve by isolated ventricular systoles.
        in: 11th ed. Fed. Proc.24. 1965: 704
        • Paul R.E.
        • Oppenheimer M.J.
        • Lynch P.R.
        • Stauffer H.M.
        Regurgitation of radiopaque contrast material through normal mitral valves in cinefluorographic studies of dogs.
        J. Appl. Physiol. 1958; 12: 98