Poisoning by venomous animals

        This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
        To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

        Purchase one-time access:

        Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
        One-time access price info
        • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
        • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


        Subscribe to The American Journal of Medicine
        Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
        Already an online subscriber? Sign in
        Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


          • Brodie B.B.
          • Cosmides G.J.
          • Rall D.P.
          Toxicology and the biochemical sciences.
          Science. 1965; 148: 1547
          • Bernard C.
          Leçons sur les Effets des Substances Toxiques et Médicamenteuses.
          J. B. Baillière, Paris1857
          • Buckley E.E.
          • Porges N.
          ed. 3. Venoms, Publication No. 44. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D. C1956
          • Buckley E.E.
          • Porges N.
          ed. 3. Venoms, Publication No. 44. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D. C1956: 341-351
          • Parrish H.M.
          Incidence of treated snakebites in the United States.
          Pub. Health Reports. 1966; 81: 269
          • Owen C.
          An Essay towards a Natural History of Serpents.
          J. Gray, London1742
          • Pope C.H.
          The Giant Snakes.
          Alfred A. Knopf, Inc, New York1961
        1. Genesis 3: 15.

          • Ditmars R.L.
          Snakes of the World.
          Macmillan Co, New York1931
        2. ed. 3. The Oxford Universal Dictionary on Historical Principles. Oxford University Press, London1955
          • Partridge E.
          ed. 2. Origins, a Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd, London1959
          • Jones H.E.
          • Jones M.C.
          Maturation and emotion: fear of snakes.
          Childhood Education. 1928; 5: 136
          • Rose W.
          Snakes—Mainly South African.
          Maskew Miller, Cape Town1955
          • Minton Jr., S.A.
          in: ed. 11. Cecil-Loeb Textbook of Medicine. W. B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia1963: 1797
          • Lamb G.
          Snake venoms: their physiological action and antidote.
          Glasgow M. J. 1903; 59: 81
          • Fidler H.K.
          • Glasgow R.D.
          • Carmichael E.B.
          Pathological changes produced by the subcutaneous injection of rattlesnake (Crotalus) venom into Macaca mulatta monkeys.
          Am. J. Path. 1940; 16: 355
          • Mitchell S.W.
          • Reichert E.T.
          Researches upon the venoms of poisonous serpents. Article I.
          in: Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. vol. 26. Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D. C1886: 1
          • Taube H.N.
          • Essex H.E.
          Pathologic changes in the tissues of the dog following injections of rattlesnake venom.
          Arch. Path. 1937; 24: 43
          • Pearce R.M.
          An experimental glomerular lesion caused by venom (Crotalus adamantus).
          J. Exper. Med. 1909; 11: 532
          • Penna de Azevedo A.
          • DeCastro Teixeira J.
          Intoxicacão por veneno de cobra. Necrose symmetrica da cortex renal uremia.
          Mem. Inst. Cruz. 1938; 33: 23
          • Reid H.A.
          Brit. M. J. 1964; 2: 540
          • Hunter W.K.
          The histological appearances of the nervous system in krait and cobra poisoning.
          Glasgow M. J. 1903; 59: 98
          • Iwanaga S.
          • Sato T.
          • Mizushima Y.
          • Suzuki T.
          Studies on snake venoms. VII. Properties of the bradykinin-releasing enzyme in the venom of Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii.
          J. Biochem. 1965; 58: 123
          • Jimenez-Porras J.M.
          Biochemical studies on the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus atrox atrox.
          J. Exper. Zool. 1961; 148: 251
          • Browne Sir Thomas
          Christian Morals.
          Cambridge University Press, 1716 (part I, section 28)
          • Mosher H.S.
          • Fuhrman F.A.
          • Buchwald H.D.
          • Fisher H.G.
          Tarichatoxin-Tetrodotoxin: a potent neurotoxin.
          Science. 1964; 144: 1100
          • Spector W.S.
          Handbook of Toxicology. W. B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia1956
          • Van Heyningen W.E.
          Bacterial Toxins.
          Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ltd, Oxford1950
          • Zeller E.A.
          Enzymes as essential components of bacterial and animal toxins.
          in: Sumner J.B. Myrbäck K. The Enzymes. Academic Press, Inc, New York1961: 986
          • LePage G.A.
          Biological energy transformations during shock as shown by tissue analyses.
          Am. J. Physiol. 1946; 146: 267
          • Slotta K.H.
          • Fraenkel-Conrat H.L.
          Schlangengifte. III. Mitteil.: Reinigung und Krystallisation des Klapperschlangen-giftes.
          Ber. deutsch. chem. Gesellsch. 1938; 71: 1076
          • Braganca B.M.
          • Quastel J.H.
          Enzyme inhibitions by snake venoms.
          Biochem. J. 1953; 53: 88
          • Grassmann W.
          • Hannig K.
          Elektrophoretische Untersuchungen an Schlangen-und Insektentoxinen.
          Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 1954; 296: 30
          • Condrea E.
          • De Vries A.
          • Mager J.
          Hemolysis and splitting of human erythrocyte phospholipids by snake venoms.
          Biochim. et biophys. acta. 1964; 84: 60
          • Uvnäs B.
          Mechanism of histamine release in mast cells.
          Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 1963; 103: 278
          • Dowling H.G.
          Classification of the serpents: a critical review.
          Copeia. 1959; 1: 38
          • Klemmer K.
          Liste der rezenten Giftschlangen: Elapidae, Hydropheidae, Viperidae und Crotalidae.
          in: Die Giftschlangen der Erde. Behringwerk-Mitteilungen/Sonderband, Marburg/Lahn1963
        3. Recommendations on the first-aid therapy and hospital care in the treatment of bites inflicted by venomous snakes.
          Toxicon. 1963; 1 (Ad Hoc Committee, National Academy of Sciences. National Research Council on Snakebite Therapy): 81
          • Taub A.M.
          Antivenins available for the treatment of snake bite.
          Toxicon. 1964; 2: 71
          • Perlman F.
          Treatment for severe reactions to bites and stings of arthropods.
          M. Times. 1962; 90: 813
          • William Jr., W.H.
          Anaphylactic shock from wasp stings.
          J. South Carolina M. A. 1951; 47: 187
          • Barnard J.H.
          Allergic reaction to insect stings and bites.
          New York J. Med. 1957; 57: 1787
          • Parrish H.N.
          Deaths from bites and stings of venomous animals and insects in the United States.
          Arch. Int. Med. 1959; 104: 198
          • Russell F.E.
          Injuries by venomous animals in the United States.
          J.A.M.A. 1961; 177: 903
          • Howell J.D.
          • Kraft B.J.
          Allergic reactions to bee and wasp stings.
          J. Indiana M. A. 1962; 55: 749
          • McCormick Jr., W.F.
          Fatal anaphylactic reactions to wasp stings.
          Am. J. Clin. Path. 1963; 39: 485
          • O'Connor R.
          • Rosenbrook Jr., W.
          • Erickson R.
          Disc electrophoresis of Hymenoptera venoms and body proteins.
          Science. 1964; 145: 1320
          • Dyke S.C.
          Wasp sting as an immediate cause of death.
          Lancet. 1941; 2: 307
          • Essex H.E.
          Certain animal venoms and their physiological action.
          Physiol. Rev. 1945; 25: 148
          • Davidson T.
          Inside the world of the honey-bee.
          National Geographic Magazine. 1959; 116: 188
          • Loveless M.H.
          • Fackler W.R.
          Wasp venom allergy and immunity.
          Ann. Allergy. 1956; 14: 347
          • Foubert Jr., E.L.
          • Stier R.A.
          Antigenic relationships between honeybees, wasps, yellow hornets, black hornets and yellow jackets.
          J. Allergy. 1958; 29: 13
          • Mohammed A.H.
          • El-Karemi M.M.
          Immunity of bee keepers to some constituents of bee venom: phospholipase A antibodies.
          Nature. 1961; 189: 837
          • Mueller H.L.
          Serial intracutaneous testing for bee and wasp sensitivity.
          J. Allergy. 1959; 30: 123
          • Jensen O.M.
          Sudden death due to stings from bees and wasps.
          Acta path. et microbiol. scandinav. 1962; 54: 9
          • Day J.M.
          Death due to cerebral infarction after wasp stings.
          Arch. Neurol. 1962; 7: 184
          • Wegelin C.
          Anatomische Befunde bei todlichem Bienen-und Wespenstich.
          Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 1948; 78: 1253
        4. Prevention of stings by Hymenoptera. American Academy of Allergy, Milwaukee, Wis1964 (Prepared by Insect Committee of the American Academy of Allergy)
          • Loveless M.H.
          Immunization in wasp-sting allergy through venom repositories and periodic insect stings.
          J. Immunol. 1962; 89: 204
          • Shaffer J.H.
          Stinging insects—a threat to life.
          J.A.M.A. 1961; 177: 473
          • Reid H.A.
          • Chan K.E.
          • Thean P.C.
          Prolonged coagulation defect (defibrination syndrome) in Malayan viper bite.
          Lancet. 1963; 1: 621
          • Atchley D.W.
          Medical Shock.
          J.A.M.A. 1930; 95: 385
          • Jackson D.
          First aid treatment for snake bite.
          Texas State J. Med. 1927; 23: 203
          • McCollough N.C.
          • Gennaro Jr., J.F.
          Evaluation of venomous snake bite in the southern United States from parallel clinical and laboratory investigations.
          J. Florida M. A. 1963; 49: 959
          • Russell F.E.
          • Scharffenberg R.S.
          Bibliography of Snake Venoms and Venomous Snakes.
          Bibliographic Associates, Inc, West Covina, Calif1964